Barley is one of an essential cereal crop cultivated in the temperate regions of the world. After maize, rice and wheat they are the most produced cereal crop consumed by a large number of peoples belonging to different parts of the world. They are known to have numerous benefits and the list is quite long.
Their major importance includes prevention of gallstones in women, helps in improving the immunity system, aids in both weight loss and digestion, is highly beneficial for the anemia tic patients, prevents cancer, diabetes, asthma, cure kidney stones and urinary stock infections, functions as a toxic cleanser, makes bones stronger preventing bone disorders and also have many other functions.
Moreover, they provide primary income to many families related to agricultural processes. Many other cereal crops are made out of them which includes oats, pearl millet, corn, maize, sorghum, finger millet etc. In India, it is mainly cultivated as a Rabi crop and their main season is from October to December when they are sown and are harvested in between the month of March to May. Below is the list of top 10 barley producing states in India in 2019.
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10. HIMACHAL PRADESH
Here barley is mainly used for the purpose of animal feed. Though they produce barley in minimal amount but are able to make up a position in the tip of top states producing barley and making themselves rank tenth in the list. They accounts 2 percent of total barley produced in the country. They mainly uses two irrigation system for the optimum cultivation of barley.
9. JAMMU AND KASHMIR
It is mainly used here for the purpose of human consumption and like a fodder for their livestock. About 40 percent of the barley produced there is consumed by the cattle there. Since barley is highly sensitive to the frost which prevents their process of growth, hence they are mainly cultivated in the summer season here. After harvesting they are stored in dry place as they are able to absorb the nearby moisture.
Saran, Champaran, Muzaffarpur, Palamau, Munger are the major districts here known to cultivate barley. The barley varieties produced here mainly includes BH-75, DL88, DWRUB64, DWR 28*, DWRUB52* and RD2668*. Heavy loam soil with medium fertility and saline to neutral condition is the best soil type required for the production of barley which is found here.
They mainly produces resistant varieties of barley which are RD2624, RD2660, RD2503 and RD2503. The warm climatic condition here satisfies the temperate needed of barley production. Due to high accurate temp here barley production is facilitated smoothly. The crop mainly requires 16 degree centigrade temperature for their growth and about 32 degree centigrade for their maturation process and all its necessities are met by the environmental condition prevailing here. Barley here grows in saline and lighter soils.
6. WEST BENGAL
Bengali name of barley is Joba and is one of the most consumed food items here. The main districts here known to cultivate barley include Jalpaiguri, Coochbehar, Burdwan, Malda, Murshidabad, Dakhin Dinajpur, Uttar Dinajpur, Bankura and in some parts of Darjeeling also. They mainly produce the irrigated type of barley which includes varieties like BH902, PL426, K 409, BH 393, Getanjali (K1149), K329 and PL751.
Barley produced in large quantity here mainly for the purpose of industrial use. The Punjabi, barley is known as sattu. 3.75 percent of their total agricultural area is used for the purpose of barley production. They contribute 6.05 percent to the total production of barley in the country. Though there is a decline of 49.23 percent of land area that was previously used for the barley production, they still manage to be in the fifth position in the list of top barley producing states. Ferozepur, Patiala and Amritsar are the leading districts of Punjab known to produce barley.
Barley is mostly consumed here as an essential food ingredient and is used in the preparation of a variety of regional dishes. The major districts here known to produce quantity barley include Gurgaon, Hissarand and Rohtak district. They are known to contribute 11 percent of total barley produced in the country. 3.49 is their total yielding per hectare. Barley is also cultivated here with other crops by following the techniques of crop rotation method. The combinations in use include Maize-Barley, Bajra-Barley, Rice-Barley, Sesame-Barley etc.
3. MADHYA PRADESH
They account 7.3 percent of barley produced in India. They devote 11.69 percent of their agricultural land for the cultivation of barley here. The types of barley sown here include Narendra Barley-2 also known as NDB940, BH 393, PL419, K560 and PL-426. They are known to have an yield of 1.24 kg of barleys per hectare of land.
2. UTTAR PRADESH
The warm climatic condition here helped the growth of this summer crop making them second leading producers of barley in the country. Varanasi, Ghazipur, Gorakhpur, Ballia, Allahabad, Janunpur, Pratapgarh, Agra, Mathura, Bulandshahr, Mirzapur and Fatehpur are the major places of Uttar Pradesh known to produce barley in appreciable quantities. They have a total agricultural area of 36.65 percent for the purpose of barley cultivation. They account 40.11 percent of the barley cultivated in the country.
Being tolerant to drought they are preferably grown in dry climatic condition areas like in Rajasthan. They are known to constitute about 47 percent of total barley production in the country. They can be expected to have an average yielding of 18 to 20 acres but the yielding greatly depends on the variety of barley sowed, field management practices and climatic conditions at the particular place. Barley produced here is also supplied to various neighbouring states.
These are the major states known to produce the largest quantity of barley in terms of their yielding per hectare. The overall climatic condition, soil type, irrigation facilities, sowing and harvesting procedures etc all together can be found in India thus making the cultivation of barley suitable here. India is known to produce one of the best barley both in terms of quality and quantity.