Oilseed crops are primarily grown for the purpose of obtaining vegetable oils from them. Oil content in them varies from 20% in soybeans to 40% in sunflowers and canola (rapeseed). Besides producing fats, oils and essential nutrients they have mainly importance in industrial productions. India is able to produce a huge amount of oilseeds because of the favourable environmental conditions here. Castor seed, sesamum, rapeseed, groundnut, mustard, soyabean, linseed, niger seed, sunflower and safflower are some of the important oilseeds India is known to produce.
India has a marked position in the world in the production of a large amount of oilseeds. After China, India is the second largest producer of groundnut and is third in position in the production of Rapeseed after China and Canada. Since 1951, India has progressed remarkably in the production of oilseeds and has a large area contributed to the production of oilseeds only which is 14% of total agricultural land in India. To increase the productivity of oilseed more, Government has taken several initiatives in the way of promoting their cultivation by keeping in mind their economical necessities. Below is the list of Top 10 Largest Oilseeds Producing States in India in 2018.
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In Jharkhand most of the oilseed production area is covered with crops of rapeseed and mustard. They also have significant no of linseed, sesame and groundnut fields. Between all the oilseeds they produce, they have high yielding for groundout followed by mustard and rapeseed. Based on analysis of the area sunflower is found as most unstable oilseed crop to be cultivated there. The average annual growth rate for groundnut, sesamum, mustard and rapeseed is estimated to be 9.42 percent, 1.49 percent, 4.41 percent and 8.36 percent respectively.
9. TAMIL NADU
They have significantly improved their oilseed production by modifying their output. They mainly produce groundnut. Perundurai and region nearby is the main rainfed area which contributes 80 percent of oilseed production of Tamil Nadu. Oilseeds are cultivated in 27,034 hectares of agricultural land and groundnut has the major share. The different components that affect the productivity are the distribution of seed treatment chemicals, distribution of rhizome cultures and proper seed distribution.
Chhattisgarh is rapidly increasing its oilseed production per hectare in every passing year. In this year there is a target of cultivating 3.36 lakh hectare of land for oilseeds whereas previous year they have 3.20 lakh hectare of land was available for their production. According to their agricultural ministry, they have an area of 1.58 lakh hectares for the cultivation of soyabeans, 75,000 hectares for Ramtil, 53,000 hectares for groundnut, 45,000 hectares for sunflower and 5,000 hectares of land for the crop Arandi.
The technological change acted significantly in the production of oilseeds. National oilseed Development Programmes is an initiative taken to promote the cultivation of oilseeds here which increased their productivity the past years and helped them to create a place among the top states of India producing oilseeds. The various oilseeds they are known to produce are a sunflower, castor, sesame, soyabean, mustard, groundnut, linseed and niger seed.
6. WEST BENGAL
They have expanded their production of oilseeds by increasing their area of cultivation for oilseed productivity. The dominant oilseeds found here are rapeseed, mustard seed, castor oils and jatropha oilseed. Due to high population, they have a high yielding rate of oilseed production. The major oilseed producing districts are Murshidabad, Malda, Darjeeling, Dinajpur etc. The production and distribution of oilseeds produced here are done with proper care.
The mainly produce tree borne oilseeds like mahua, olive, jatropha, jojoba etc. they have subsequently developed cultivation of a new oil crop oil palm which is the highest vegetable oil yielding crop, perennial in nature. They are exporters of oilseeds and edible oils by improving their soil treatment procedures and introducing new equipment for agriculture.
4. MADHYA PRADESH
They constitute 24.48 percent of countries oilseed production. The major oilseed produced here is groundnut and mustard. The other potential oilseeds cultivated here are soyabeans and rapeseed. The climatic factors also favour the cultivation of oilseeds here. Madhya Pradesh is well sufficient in the production of edible oilseeds and also exports oilseeds making themselves one of the largest oilseeds producers in the country.
3. UTTAR PRADESH
The backbone of Uttar Pradesh economy is agriculture and oilseeds comprise a major portion of it. The oilseed production favouring soil condition favours their increase in output. Oilseed production gets motivation here due to the availability of increased irrigation networks and commencement of green revolution.
The major oilseed produced by Gujarat is groundnut. Due to the presence of favourable weather conditions and necessary monsoon production of oilseeds that comes under rabi crops has been increased. Beside groundnut, Gujarat produces a number of other oilseeds which include sesame, soyabean, rapeseed, mustard and castor seeds. Thay has a total production of 2.78 million tines of groundnuts on yearly basis. After groundnut, the second highest oilseed produced is mustard which is estimated to be 4,80,000 tonnes yearly.
Rajasthan cracks the list of top oilseed-producing states of India. The state being India’s largest one gets the advantage of having a higher amount of land and their climatic condition favours the production of oilseeds. The major oilseeds they produce are mustard, rapeseed, sesamum, groundnut and soyabean. Groundnut and soyabean come under Kharif crop types and mainly dependent on the rainfall conditions while mustard, taramira and rapeseed come under rabi crops are cultivated in the majority of areas across Rajasthan. The diversity in soil types and warm humid climatic conditions favours the growth of oilseeds here.
Besides these states, there are other Indian states known to produce oil seeds though are not in large amounts. Oilseeds are required in the production of oils, as a raw material in the manufacturing of paints, soaps, perfumes, lubricants and a lot of others. They constitute a very important part of commercial crops and thus by increasing their productivity a country will get benefited as a whole.